Sources for the Anthropological Study of African Diaspora Music and Expressive Culture

Roots: The African Background of American Culture through the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
NEH Summer Institute
Virginia Foundation for the Humanities
June 1998

Compiled by Michael Stone
Department of Anthropology
Hartwick College

Abrahams, Roger D.

1970 Rapping and Capping: Black Talk as Art. In Black America. John F. Szwed, ed. pp. 132-142. New York: Free Press.

1983 The Man-of-Words in the West Indies: Performance and the Emergence of Creole Culture. Baltimore.

1994 Singing the Master: The Emergence of African American Culture in the Plantation South. New York: Penguin.

Allen, Ray

1991 Singing in the Spirit: African-American Sacred Quartets in New York City. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Amira, John, and Steven Cornelius

1992 The Music of Santería. Crown Point, IN: White Cliffs Media Co.


1983 African Material in Archive of Folk Song. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Music Division, Archive of Folk Song. [LC 1.12/2:Af 8/3]

Aretz, Isabel

1984 Music and Dance in Continental Latin America, with the Exception of Brazil. In Africa in Latin America: Essays on History, Culture, and Socialization. Manuel Moreno Fraginals, ed. pp. 189-226. New York: Holmes and Meier.

Austerlitz, Paul

1997 Merengue: Dominican Music and Dominican Identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Averill, Gage

1989 Haitian Dance Bands, 1915-1970: Class, Race, and Authenticity. Latin American Music Review 10(2): 203-235.

1997 A Day for the Hunter, A Day for the Prey: Popular Music and Power in Haiti. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

Bascom, William Russell

1992 African Folktales in the New World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Beckwith, Martha W.

1929 Black Roadways: A Study of Jamaican Folk Life. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Béhague, Gerard H., ed.

1994 Music and Black Ethnicity: The Caribbean and South America. Coral Gables: University of Miami North-South Center/ New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Bilby, Kenneth M.

1983 Black Thoughts from the Caribbean. New West Indian Guide 57(3/4): 201-213.

1985 The Caribbean as a Musical Region. In Caribbean Contours. Sidney W. Mintz and Sally Price, eds. pp. 181-218. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Burnim, Melonee

1985 The Black Gospel Music Tradition: A Complex of Ideology, Aesthetics and Behavior. In More Than Dancing: Essays on Afro-American Music and Musicians. Irene W. Jackson, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

1988 Functional Dimensions of Gospel Music Performance. Western Journal of Black Studies 12.

Chasteen, John Charles

1996 The Prehistory of Samba: Carnival Dancing in Rio de Janeiro, 1840-1917. Journal of Latin American Studies 28(1): 29-46.

Chernoff, John Miller

1979 African Rhythm and African Sensibility: Aesthetics and Social Action in African Musical Idioms. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chevannes, Barry

1994 Rastafari: Roots and Ideology. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Collins, John

1985 Music Makers of West Africa. Washington, DC: Three Continents.

Courlander, Harold

1960 The Drum and the Hoe: Life and Lore of the Haitian People. Berkeley: University of California Press.

1963 Negro Folk Music, U.S.A. New York: Columbia University Press.

Crook, Larry N.

1993 Black Consciousness, Samba Reggae, and Re-Africanization of Bahian Carnival Music in Brazil. World of Music 35(2).

Daniel, Yvonne

1995 Rumba: Dance and Social Change in Contemporary Cuba. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

de Carvalho, José Jorge

1984 Music of African Origin in Brazil. In Africa in Latin America: Essays on History, Culture, and Socialization. Manuel Moreno Fraginals, ed. pp. 227-248. New York: Holmes and Meier.

Duany, Jorge

1988 After the Revolution: The Search for Roots in Afro-Cuban Culture. Latin American Music Review 23(1): 244-255.

1994 Ethnicity, Identity, and Music: An Anthropological Analysis of Dominican Merengue. In Music and Black Ethnicity: The Caribbean and South America. Gerard H. Béhague, ed. pp. 65-90. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Eisenhood, Elizabeth D.

1980 Brazilian Materials in the Archive of Folk Song. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Archive of Folk Song.

Epstein, Dena J.

1977 Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Evans, David

1970 Afro-American One-stringed Instruments. Western Folklore 29: 229-245.

1981 African Elements in 20th-century United States Black Folk Music. In Report to the 12th Congress. pp. 54-66. London: American Musicological Society.

Gilroy, Paul

1993 "Jewels Brought from Bondage": Black Music and the Politics of Authenticity. In The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. pp. 72-110. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Guilbault, Jocelyne

1990 On Interpreting Popular Music: Zouk in the West Indies. In Caribbean Popular Culture. John A. Lent, ed. pp. 79-97. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.

1993 Zouk: World Music in the West Indies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Guillermoprieto, Alma

1990 Samba. New York: Vintage. [Brazil]

Hall, Perry A.

1997 African-American Music: Dynamics of Appropriation and Innovation. In Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation. Bruce Ziff and Pratima V. Rao, eds. pp. 31-51. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Hazzard-Jordan, Katrina

1990 Jookin': The Rise of Social Dance Formations in African-American Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Hebdige, Dick

1987 Cut 'n' Mix: Culture, Identity and Caribbean Music. London: Methuen.

Herskovits, Melville J.

1966 Drums and Drummers in Afrobrazilian Cult Life. In The New World Negro: Selected Papers in Afroamerican Studies. Frances S. Herskovits, ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Hopkin, John B.

1978 Music in the Pentecostal Church. Jamaica Journal 42: 22-40.

Howard, Joseph H.

1967 Drums in the Americas. New York: Oak Publications.

Jackson, Irene V., ed.

1985 More Than Drumming: Essays on African and Afro-Latin American Music and Musicians. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

James, Willis

1955 The Romance of the Negro Folk Cry in America. Phylon 16.

Jones, Bessie, and Bess Lomax Hawes

1972 Step It Down: Games, Plays, Songs and Stories from the Afro-American Heritage. Athens: Georgia University Press.

Kaufman, Frederick, and John Guckin

1979 The African Roots of Jazz. Alfred Publishing Co.

King, Stephen, and Richard J. Jensen

1995 Bob Marley's "Redemption Song": The Rhetoric of Reggae and Rastafari. Journal of Popular Culture 29(3):17-36.

Kinser, Samuel

1990 Carnival American Style: Mardi Gras at New Orleans and Mobile. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Krehbiel, Henry

1914 Afro-American Folksongs. New York: Ungar.

León, Argeliers

1984 Del canto y el tiempo, segunda edición. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba: Editorial Letras Cubanas.

1991 Of the Axle and the Hinge: Nationalism, Afro-Cubanism, and Music in Pre-revolutionary Cuba. In Essays in Cuban Music: North American and Cuban Perspectives. Peter Manuel, ed. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Lewis, J. Lowell

1992 Ring of Liberation: Deceptive Discourse in Brazilian Capoeira. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lewis, William F.

1993 Soul Rebels: The Rastafari. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Ligièro, Zeca

1993 Candomblé is Religion-life-art. In Divine Inspiration: From Benin to Bahia. Phyllis Galembo, ed. pp. 97-119. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Lomax, Alan

1970 The Homogeneity of Afro-American Musical Style. In Afro-American Anthropology: Contemporary Perspectives. Norman E. Whitten and John F. Szwed, eds. pp. 181-201. New York: Free Press.

1993 The Land Where the Blues Began. New York: Pantheon.

Lomax, John A., and Alan Lomax

1936 Negro Folk Songs as Sung by Lead Belly. New York: Macmillan.

1947 Folksong, USA. New York: Duell, Sloane and Pearce.

Malone, Jacqui

1996 Steppin' on the Blues: The Visible Rhythms of African American Dance. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Manuel, Peter

1995 Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Manuel, Peter, ed.

1991 Essays in Cuban Music: North American and Cuban Perspectives. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Marks, Morton

1974 Ritual Structures in Afro-American Music. In Religious Movements in Contemporary America. Irving Zaretsky and Mark P. Leone, eds. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Maultsby, Portia K.

19xx Popular Music of Black America: A Sociocultural and Musical History.

1975 Music of Northern Independent Black Churches during the Ante-Bellum Period. Ethnomusicology 19: 407-418.

1983 Soul Music: Its Sociological and Political Significance in American Popular Culture. Journal of Popular Culture 17.

1986 Rhythm and Blues (1945-1955): A Survey of Styles. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

1990 Africanisms in African-American Music. In Africanisms in American Culture. Joseph E. Holloway, ed. pp. 185-210. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Moore, Robin

1997 Nationalizing Blackness: Afrocubanismo and Artistic Revolution in Havana, 1920-1940. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Nketia, J.H. Kwabena

1981 African Roots of Music in the Americas: An African View. In Report to the 12th Congress. pp. 82-88. London: American Musicological Society.

Pacini Hernández, Deborah

1989 Social Identity and Class in Bachata, an Emerging Popular Music in the Dominican Republic. Latin American Music Review 10(1): 69-91.

1991 La lucha sonora: Dominican Popular Music in the Post-Trujillo Era. Latin American Music Review 12(2): 105-123.

1992 Bachata: From the Margins to the Mainstream. Popular Music 11(3):359-364.

1992 The Merengue: Race, Class, Tradition, and Identity. In Americas: An Anthology. Mark B. Rosenberg, A. Douglas Kincaid, and Kathleen Logan, eds. pp. 167-172. New York: Oxford University Press.

1995 A Social History of Dominican Popular Music. Philadelphia. Temple University Press.

Quito-Rivera, Angel G.

1994 The Camouflaged Drum: Melodization of Rhythms and Maroonaged Ethnicity in Caribbean Peasant Music. Caribbean Quarterly 40(1):27-37.

Reagon, Bernice Johnson, ed.

1992 We'll Understand It By and By: Pioneering African-American Gospel Composers. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Roberts, John Storm

1985 Black Music of Two Worlds. Tivoli, NY: Original Music.

1998 Black Music of Two Worlds, Second Revised Edition. New York. Schirmer Books.

Smith, Michael P.

1992 Spirit World: Pattern in the Expressive Folk Culture of African-American New Orleans. Gretna, LA: Pelican.

Smith, Ronald R.

1983 Afro-American Folk Music. In Handbook of American Folklore. R.M. Dorson, ed.

Southern, Eileen

1970 The Music of Black Americans: A History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1997 The Music of Black Americans: A History, Third Edition. New York: Verso.

Southern, Eileen, ed.

1983 Readings in Black American Music. New York: Norton.

Stewart, Earl L.

1997 African-American Music: An Introduction. New York: Schirmer Books.

Stuempfle, Stephen

1995 The Steelband Movement: The Forging of a National Art in Trinidad and Tobago. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Szwed, John F.

1969 Musical Adaptation among Afro-Americans. Journal of American Folklore 82: 112-121.

1970 Afro-American Musical Adaptation. In Afro-American Anthropology: Contemporary Perspectives. N.E. Whitten and J.F. Szwed, eds. New York: Free Press.

1978 Afro-American Folk Culture: An Annotated Bibliography of Materials from North, Central, and South America, and the West Indies. Philadelphia: ISHI.

Szwed, John F., and Morton Marks

1988 The Afro-American Transformation of European Set Dances and Dance Suites. Dance Research Journal 20(1).

Thompson, Donald

1975-76 A New World Mbira: The Caribbean Marímbula. African Music Society Journal 5(4): 140-148.

Thompson, Robert Farris

1984 Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy. New York: Vintage.

Toll, Robert

1974 Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-century America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Urfé, Odilio

1984 Music and Dance in Cuba. In Africa in Latin America: Essays on History, Culture, and Socialization. Manuel Moreno Fraginals, ed. pp. 170-188. New York: Holmes and Meier.

Vlach, John Michael

1991 By the Work of Their Hands: Studies in Afro-American Folklife. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Wade, Peter

1995 Black Music and Cultural Syncretism in Colombia. In Slavery and Beyond: The African Impact on Latin America and the Caribbean. Darién J. Davis, ed. pp. 121-146. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.

Waterman, Richard Alan

1948 Hot Rhythm in Negro Dance Music. Journal of the American Musicological Society 1: 24-37.

1963 On Flogging a Dead Horse: Lessons Learned from the Africanisms Controversy. Ethnomusicology 7: 83-87.

1967 [1952] African Influence on the Music of the Americas. In Acculturation in the Americas: Proceedings and Selected Papers of the XXIX International Congress of Americanists. Sol Tax, ed. pp. 207-217. New York: Cooper Square Publishers.

Waters, Anita M.

1985 Race, Class, and Political Symbols: Rastafarianism and Reggae in Jamaican Politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Weldon, James, and J. Rosamond Johnson

1969 [1925-1926] American Negro Spirituals. New York: Da Capo Press.

Whitten, Norman E., Jr.

1970 Personal Networks and Musical Contexts in the Pacific Lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. In Afro-American Anthropology: Contemporary Perspectives. Norman E. Whitten, Jr., and John F. Szwed, eds. pp. 203-217. New York: Free Press.

Wiggins, William H.

1987 O Freedom!: Afro-American Emancipation Celebrations. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Wilcken, Lois E., with Frisner Augustin

1992 Drums of Vodou. Tempe, AZ: White Cliffs Media Company.

Williams-Jones, Pearl

1975 Afro-American Gospel Music: A Crystallization of the Black Aesthetic. Ethnomusicology 19.

Wright, Richardson Little

1969 Revels in Jamaica, 1682-1838: Plays and Players of a Century, Tumblers and Conjurors. New York: B. Blom.

Work, John W.

1969 [1915] Folk Song of the American Negro. New York: Negro Universities Press.