Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History

(English Language)

Map from Leo Africanus, A Geographical Historie, trans. John Pory, London, 1600.

|Primary Reader|

      For a full list with brief annotation of published primary sources in English and other European languages, see J.D. Fage, ed., A Guide to Original Sources For Precolonial Western Africa Published in European Languages, (rev. ed., African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1994).

 [anon.]. Considerations on the Present Peace as Far as it is Relative to the Colonies and the African Trade. London, 1753.
     extracts printed in Donnan, Documents.

 [anon.]. The Golden Coast, or a Description of Guinney. . . Together with a Relation of Such Persons as Got Wonderful Estates by Their Trade Thither. London, 1665.
     a promotional tract for the Company of Royal Adventurers to Africa?

 [anon.]. A Little Forraine Newes Better Than a Great Deale of Domestic Spurious False Newes Published Daily without Fears or Wit, To the Shame of the Nation and Beyond the Liberty of Paris Pasquils. London, 1642.
     contains an account of the Dutch capture of Luanda in 1641.

 Adams, Capt. John Remarks on the Country Extending from Cape Palmas to the River Congo. . .. London, 1823. (facs. ed. 1966).

 Adanson, Michel. Voyage to Senegal, the Isle of Goree and the River Gambia. . .Translated from the French with Notes by an English Gentleman. . .. London, 1759.

 [The African Association]. Proceedings of the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa. London, 1790-1810. (facs. ed. 1967).
     see Hallett, Robin, Records of the African Association.

 Agaja, King of Dahomey. Letter to King George III. . . . in The Parliamentary History of England. . ., vol. XXVIII, London, 1816, 82-91.

 Arnett, E.J. and H.R. Palmer, trans. and eds. The Rise of the Sokoto Fulani, Being a Paraphrase and in Some Parts a Translation of Infaku'l Maisuri. Kano, n.d. [1922].
     see comments in Murray Last, The Sokoto Caliphate (London, 1967), xxx-xxxii.

Ashton, T.S., ed. Letters of a West African Trader. [Edward Grace] London, 1950.

 Astley, Thomas. A New General Collection of Voyages & Travels. 4 vols., London, 1745-47.
     Fage judges this "one of the most famous and, so far as Africa is concerned, complete collections of voyages and travels. . ." [Guide to Original Sources, 74.]

 Atkins, John. A Voyage to Guinea, Brasil and the West-Indies in H.M. Ships Swallow and Weymouth. London, 1735. 2nd ed. 1737.

 __________. The Navy-Surgeon, or a Practical System of Surgery. . .. London, 1734.

 Aubrey, T., M.D. The Sea-Surgeon, or the Guinea Man's Vade Mecum. . .. London, 1729.
     a handbook on West African diseases

Austin, Allan D. African Muslims in Antebellum America: A Sourcebook. New York and London, 1984.

 Barbot, Jean. (see Hair, P.E.H., Jones, and Law, eds.)

 Barbour, Bernard, and Michelle Jacobs, eds. "The MicRaj: A Legal Treatise on Slavery by Ahmad Baba," in John Randolph Willis, ed., Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa, vol. 1, London, 1985.

 Barker, Robert. The Unfortunate Shipwright, or Cruel Captain. . . a Narrative of Robert Barker, late Carpenter Aboard the Thetis. . .in a Voyage to the Coast of Guinea and Antigua. London, n.d. (1760? and later eds.).

 __________. The Genuine Life of Robert Barker, Dictated by Himself while in a State of Total Blindness. . .. London, 1809.

Beaver, Capt. Philip. African Memoranda Relative to an Attempt to Establish a British Settlement on the Island of Bolama. . . in the Year 1792, with a Brief Notice of the Neighbouring Tribes. . .. London, 1805.
      see also Montefiore, Joshua.

 Beazley, C.R. and E. Prestage, eds. The Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea. 2 vols., Hakluyt Society, 95 and 100. London, 1896-99.
     account of the voyage of Gomes Eanes de Azurara (Zurara), 1441-60.

 Benezet, Anthony. A Short Account of that Part of Africa Inhabited by the Negroes. . . Extracted from Divers Authors. Philadelphia, 1762. (also London, 1763, 1768.).

 __________. Some Historical Account of Guinea. . .also a Republication of the Sentiments of Several Authors. . . on this Interesting Subject. . .. Philadelphia, 1771. (also London, 1772 and subseq. eds.).

 Bilali, Salih. (see Hodgson, W.B., Curtin, Philip, and Austin, Allan).

 Blake, J.W. Europeans in West Africa. Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 86. London, 1942.

 Bosman, Willem. A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea. . .. London, 1705. (subseq. eds., 1721, 1754; facs. eds., 1907, 1967.)
     according to Fage, a classic account

 B(urton), R (Robert or Richard). A View of the English Acquisitions in Guinea and the East Indies with an Account of the Inhabitants. . .. London, 1686.
     "RB" actually Nathaniel Crouch.

 Charant, Antoine. A Letter in Answer to. . . Questions Concerning the Religion, Manners, and Customs of the Countrys of Muley Arxid, King of Tafiletta. Also Their Trading to Tombotim for Gold. . . by Mons. A. ****. London, 1671.

Childers, Col. Spencer. A Mariner of England. . . The Career of William Richardson from Cabin Boy. . . to Warrant Officer. . . as Told by Himself. London, 1908.

 Churchill, Awnsham and John. A Collection of Voyages and Travels. 4 vols., London, 1704. (repr. 1732 with 2 additional volumes).

 Clarkson, Thomas. Essay on the Impolicy of the African Slave Trade. London, 1788.

 __________. Essay on the Efficiency of Regulation or Abolition. . .. London, 1789.

 __________. History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade. 2 vols., London, 1808.

 __________. Letters on the Slave-Trade and the State of the Natives in those Parts of Africa which are Contiguous to Fort St. Louis and Goree. . . . London, 1791.

 Cotton, Capt. R.N. and John Roberts. Extracts from an Account of the State of the British Forts on the Gold Coast of Africa, Taken by Capt. Cotton of H.M. ship Pallas in. . . 1777, to which are Added Observations by John Roberts. London, 1778.

 Crone, G.R., ed., The Voyages of Cadamosto and Other Documents. . .. Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 80. London, 1937.
     includes various accounts

 Crooks, John Joseph. Records Relating to the Gold Coast Settlements from 1750 to 1874. Dublin, 1923. (facs. ed., London, 1973).

 Crow, Capt. Hugh. Memoirs of the Late captain Hugh Crow of Liverpool, Comprising a Narrative of his Life Together with Descriptive Sketches of the Western Coast of Africa, Particularly of Bonny. . .. London and Liverpool, 1830. (facs. ed. 1970).
     see also D.C.Simmons, Grant's Sketch of Calabar (American Association for African Research, Calabar, 1958, 1962).

 Cugoano, Ottobah. Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil and Wicked Traffic of the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species. London, 1787. (facs. ed. 1969).
     Cugoano was a Fante who was captured, then freed in England.

Curtin, Philip. Africa Remembered: Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade. 1967.
     includes selections from Equiano, Salih Bilali, and Job Ben Solomon among others

 Dalzell, Archibald. The History of Dahomy, an Inland Kingdom of Africa, Compiled from Authentic Memoirs. London, 1793.

 Dantzig, Albert Van. The Dutch and the Guinea Coast, 1674-1742: A Collection of Documents from the General State Archive at the Hague. Accra, 1978.

 Dappert, Olfert. (see Ogilby, John).

 Davenant, Charles. Reflections upon the Constitution and Management of the Trade to Africa. London, 1709.
     Davenant, a well-known political writer, never went to Africa. Extracts printed in Donnan, Documents.

 Demarin, John Peter. A Treatise upon the Trade from Great Britain to Africa. . .By an African Merchant. London, 1772.
     extracts printed in Donnan, Documents.

Donnan, Elizabeth. Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America. 4 vols., Washington, D.C., 1930-35.

 Donno, C.S., ed. An Elizabethan in 1582: The Diary of Richard Madox. Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 147. London, 1976.

 Duke, Antera. (see Forde, C. Daryll).

 Duke, George. The Life of Major-General Worge, Colonel of the 86th Regiment of Foot, and Governor of Senegal in Africa, with an Account of the Settlement of Senegal and Goree. London, 1844.

 Eden, Richard. The Decades of the Newe World. . .. London, 1555.

Equiano, Olaudah. The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings. ed. Vincent Carretta. London, 1995. orig. pub. London, 1789.
     see also Curtin, Philip.

 Falconbridge, Alexander. An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa. London, 1788.

 Falconbridge, Mrs. Anna Maria. Narrative of Two Voyages to the River Sierra Leone during the Years 1791-2-3. . .. London , 1794. 2nd ed. 1802 (facs. ed. 1967).

 Faria Y Sousa, Manuel de. Asia Portuguesa. 3 vols., Lisbon, 1666-75. (Eng. trans. J. Stevens, The Portugues Asia, 3 vols. London, 1695.

Forde, C. Daryll. Efik Traders of Old Calabar. . .; The Diary of Antera Duke, an Efik Slave-Trading Chief of the Eighteenth Century. London, 1956.

 Frejus, Roland de. The Relation of a Voyage Made into Mauritania in Africk by the Sieur Roland Frejus. . .. London, 1671.

 Froger, Francois. Relation of a Voyage. . . on the Coasts of Africa. . . by a Squadron of French Men-of-War. London, 1698.

 G-----, J.S. The Detector Detected, or the State of Affairs on the Gold Coast. London, 1753.
     authored by a former commander of the Royal African Company?

 Gonja Chronicles. (see Wilks, Ivor).

 Grace, Edward. (see Ashton, T.S.).

 Gronniosaw (Granwasa), James Albert Ukawsaw. A Narrative of the Most Remarkable Particulars in the Life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, an African Prince, as Related by Himself. Bath, 1770?.
     many reprints, incl. electronic edition at University of Virginia.

 Hair, P.E.H., ed. East of Mina: Afro-European Relations on the Gold Coast in the 1550s and 1560s. . .. African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1988.

 __________, ed. Jesuit Documents on the Guinea of Cape Verde and the Cape Verde Islands, 1585-1617: Documents Assembled by the Late Avelino Teixeira da Mota and Translated by P.E.H. Hair. Issued for the Use of Scholars by the History Department, University of Liverpool, 1989.

 __________, ed. Sierra Leone and the English in 1607: Extracts from the Unpublished Journals of the Keeling Voyage to the East Indies. Freetown, Institute of African Studies, 1981.

 __________, ed. Travails in Guinea: Robert Baker's "Briefe Dyscourse". . .. Liverpool Historical Essays, 2. Liverpool University Press, 1990.

Hair, P.E.H., Adam Jones and Robin Law, eds. Barbot on Guinea: The Writings of Jean Barbot on West Africa, 1678-1712. Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 175-6. London, 1992.
     Jean Barbot, French Huguenot, visited Africa in 1678-9 and 1681-2. His account, although not entirely eyewitness, is one of the fullest for West Africa of this period.

 Hakluyt, Richard. The Principal Navigations. . . . London, 1589.
     various accounts of voyages to Africa.

Hallett, Robin. Records of the African Association. London, 1964.

 Harleian Collection. (see Osborne, Thomas).

 Harris, John, D.D., F.R.S. A Complete Collection of Voyages and Travels. . .. 4 vols., London, 1744-48.

 Herbert, Sir Thomas. A Relation of Some Years Travaile. . . into Afrique and the Greater Asia. London, 1634 and subsequent eds.

 Heylin, Peter. Cosmographie. . .Containing the Chorographie and Historie of the Whole World. London, 1652.

Highfield, Arnold R. and Vladimir Barac, eds. A Caribbean Mission. New York, 1987.
     recounts the voyage of Christian Georg Andreas Oldendorp, who interviewed a number of enslaved Africans.

 Hippisley (Hippersley), John. Essays on the Populousness of Africa, on the Trade at the Forts on the Gold Coast. . .. London, 1764.

 Hiskett, Mervyn, trans. and ed. Tazyin al-Waraqat. Ibadan, 1963.
     account of the jihad of Usuman dan Fodio. see Uthman).

 Hoare, Prince. Memoirs of Granville Sharp, Esq. Composed from. . . Authentic Documents in the Possession of his Family and of the African Institution. . .. London, 1820.

Hodgson, W.B. Notes on Northern Africa, the Sahara and the Soudan. New York, 1844.
     incl. "Salih Bilali's recollections": also found in Curtin and Austin).

 Hollingsworth, S. A Dissertation on theManners, Governments and Spirit of Africa, to whcih is Added Observations on the Present Applications to Parliament for Abolishing Negro Slavery in the British West Indies. . .. Edinburgh, 1788.

 Hopkins, J.F.P. and Nehemia Levitzon. Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History. Cambridge, 1981.
     various Arabic accounts, ca. 800-ca. 1600.

 Horne, Rev. Melvill. Letters on Missions, Addressed to the Protestant Ministers of the British Churches. Bristol, 1794.

 Houston (Houstoun), Dr. James. Some New and Accurate Observations . . . of the Coast of Guinea. . .. London, 1725.
     also Memoirs of the Life and Travels. . .. London, 1747; Dr. Houston's Memoirs of His Own Life. . .. London, 1747; and The Works of James Houston, Containing Memoirs of His Life. . .. 2 vols., London, 1753.

 Isert, Dr. Paul Erdmann. (see Winsnes, Selena).

 Jackson, James Grey. An Account of the Empire of Marocco. . . to which is Added an Accurate and Intersting Account of Timbuctoo. . .. London, 1809. (facs. ed. 1968).

 __________. An Account of Timbuctoo and Housa. Territories in the Interior of Africa, by El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny. . . to which is Added Letters Descriptive of Trade through West and South Barbary. London, 1820. (facs. ed. 1967).

 Jobson, Richard. The Golden Trade, or a Discovery of the River Gambra and the Golden Trade of the Aethiopians. . .. London, 1623.
     Fage notes that this 1618 trip was the first significant voyage up the Gambia River by an Englishman.

 Johnston, Capt. John. The Journal of an African Slaver, 1789-1792. facs. ed. with intro. by George A. Plimpton, Worcester, MA, 1930.

Jones, Adam. Brandenburg Sources for West African History, 1680-1700. Wiesbaden, 1985.

Jones, Adam. "The Earliest German Sources for West African History (1504-1509)." Paideuma, 35 (1989), 148.

 __________. German Sources for West African History, 1599-1669. Wiesbaden, 1983.

 Kimble, G.H.T., ed. and trans. Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis. Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 79, London, 1937.
     an account of the voyage of Duarte Pacheco Pereira, 1505-8.

 Knox, J. A New Collection of Voyages, Discoveries and Travels. . .. 7 vols., London, 1767.

 Lamb(e), Bulfinch. Letter Written from Abomey, 27 November 1724.
     reprinted in William Smith, A New Voyage to Guinea, London, 1744; and Frederick E. Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans, London, 1851.

 Lange, Dierck. A Sudanic Chronicle: The Bornu Expeditions of Idris Alauma (1564-1576). Stuggart and Weisbaden, 1988.

 Law, Robin, ed. Correspondence of the Royal African Company's Chief Merchants at Cabo Corso Castle with William's Fort, Whydah, and the Little Popo Factory. . .. African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991.

 __________. Correspondence from the Royal African Co.'s Factories. . . on the Slave Coast. . ., 1678-93. Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh, 1990.

 __________, ed. Further Correspondence of the Royal African Co.. . .Relating to the "Slave Coast," 1681-1699. African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1992.

 Le Blanc, Vincent. The World Surveyed, or the Famous Voyages and Travailes. . .. London, 1660.
     orig. pub. in French in 1648 of voyage undertaken in 1592.

 Le Maire, Jacques-Joseph. A Voyage of the Sieur Le Maire to the Canary Islands, Cape Verd, Senegal, and Gamby. . .. London, 1696.
     abridged English version ed. Edmund Goldsmid, Voyage to the Canaries, Cape Verd, and the Coast of Africa under the Command of M. Dancourt. Edinburgh, 1887.

 Leo, Johannes (Leo Africanus). A Geographical Historie of Africa. London, 1600. (reprint ed., New York, Da Capo Press, 1969).
      "Leo was born al-Hasan b. Muhammad al-Wazzan as-Zayyati at Granada between 1489 and 1495. Following the Spanish conquest, the family moved to Morocco. Between about 1509 and 1513, Leo made two trips to the Sudan. He was captured by a Christian corsair c. 1518 and presented to Pope Leo X; it is known that the MS of his great Description was in existence by 1529." [Fage, 9]

 Ligon, Richard. A True and Exact History of the Island of Barbados. . .. London, 1657. (facs. eds., 1970, 1976).

 Lindsay, Rev. John. A Voyage to the Coast of Africa in 1758, Containing a Succinct Account of the Expedition to, and the Taking of the Island of Goree by, a Squadron Commanded by the Hon. Augustus Keppel. London, 1759.

 Makepeace, Margaret, ed. Trade on the Guinea Coast, 1657-1666: The Correspondence of the East India Company. African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991.

 Martin, Eveline. Journal of a Slave Dealer. . . on the Coast of Africa and America from. . . 1746. . . to. . . 1757. London, 1930.
     journal of Nicholas Owen

 Mathews, John, Lt., R.N. A Voyage to the River Sierra Leone. . . an Account of the Trade and Production. . . and of the Civil and Religious Customs and Manners. . . With an Additional Letter on the Subject of the Slave Trade. . .. London, 1788. 2nd ed., 1791. (facs. ed. 1966).

 Middleton, Charles Theodore. A New and Complete System of Geography. 2 vols., London, 1779.

Montefiore, Joshua. An Authentic Account of the Late Expedition to Bulam on the Coast of Africa: With a Description of. . . Sierra Leone and the Adjacent Country. London, 1794.
     see also Beaver, Capt. Philip.

 Moore, Francis. Travels in the Inland Parts of Africa. . . . London, 1738 (2nd ed., 1740; facs. ed., 1968.)

 Moore, John Hamilton. A New and Complete Collection of Voyages and Travels. 2 vols. London, n.d. [1780].

 Park, Mungo. Travels into the Interior Districts of Africa. London, 1799.

 Munster, Sebastien. A Treatyse of the Newe India with Other Newfounde Landes and Islands. trans. Richard Eden. London, 1553.
     derived from Cadamosto.

 Newbery, John. The World Displayed, or a Curious Collection of Voyages and Travels. 20 vols. London, 1760-61 and later eds.

 Newton, Rev. John. An Authentic Narrative of Some Remarkable and Interesting Particulars in the Life of ** *****. London, 1764.

 __________. Thoughts upon the African Slave Trade. London, 1787.
     see also Bernard Martin and Mark Spurrell, eds. Journal of a Slave Trader, John Newton, 1750-54. With Newton's "Thoughts on the African Slave Trade." London, 1962.

 Norris, Robert. Memoirs of the Reign of Bossa Ahadee, King of Dahomy. . . to which are Added the Author's Journey to Abomey. . . and a Short Account of the African Slave Trade. London, 1789. facs. ed., 1968.

 [Parliament, United Kingdom]. Sessional Papers.
     Session 1789: xxiv, 626-34; xv, 635-45; xxvi, 646, 646a
     Session 1790: xxix, 698-9
     Session 1790-1: xxxiv, 745-8
     Session 1847-8: xxii, 272, 366, 536, 623
     Session 1849: xix, 308, 410
     Session 1850: ix, 53, 590

 Postlethwayt, Malachy. The African Trade, the Great Pillar and Support of the British Plantation Trade in America. . .. London, 1745.
     Postlethwayt was a well-known mercantilist writer. See also:

 __________. The National and Private Advantages of the African Trade Considered, Being an Enquiry How Far it Concerns the the Trading Interest of Great Britain Effectually to Support and Maintain the Forts and Settlements in Africa Belonging to the Royal African Company. . .. London, 1746. (repr. ed., 1772).

 __________. The Importance of the African Expedition. . .. London, 1758.

Ogilby, John. Africa, Being an Accurate Description. . .. London, 1670.
     English trans. of Olfert Dappert, Naukeurige Beschrijvinge der Afrikaensche Gewesten. . .. Amsterdam, 1668.

 Oldendorp, Christian Georg Andreas. (see Highfield, Arnold R., and Vladimir Barac, eds., A Caribbean Mission).

 Osborn, Capt. Robert. A Narrative or Journal of the Duke of Cumberland, Indiaman, Captain Robert Osborn. . .. London, 1750.

Osborne, Thomas. A Collection of Voyages and Travels, Consisting of Authentic Writers in Our Own Tongue. . . and Continued with Others of Note. . .Compiled from the Library of the Late Earl of Oxford. . .. Printed for. . .Thomas Osborne, 2 vols., London, 1745.

 Pellow (Pellew), Thomas. The History of the Long Captivity of Thomas Pellow in South Barbary, by Himself. London, 1739, 2nd ed., 1740.
     Pellow was captured as a young boy by Berbers, converted to Islam and commanded a caravan to Timbuktu before escaping back to England.

 Pigafetta, Filippo, and Duarte Lopez. A Report of the Kingdome of Congo, a Region of Africa, and of the Countries that Border Rounde the Same. London, 1597. (repr. in Samuel Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus).

Purchas, Samuel. Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas His Pilgrimes, London, 1625. (var. repr. ed.).

 Ravenstein, E.G. The Strange Adventures of Andrew Battell. . .in Angola. Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 6. London, 1901.
     incl. "The Adventures of Master Anthony Knivet which Went with Master T. Candish . . ." in appendix.

 Renneville, René-Augustin-Constantin de. A Collection of Voyages Made by the Dutch East India Company. . .. London, 1703.

 Richardson, William. (see Childers, Col. Spencer).

 Roberts, Capt. George. The Four Years Voyages of Captain George Roberts. . . to the Islands of the Canaries, Cape de Verde, and Barbadoes, from whence He Was Bound to the Coast of Guiney. . . Written by Himself. London, 1726.

 Robertson, Dr. Robert. A Physical Journal Kept. . . during Three Voyages on the Coast of Africa and the West Indies in the Years 1772-74. London, 1777.

 Robyn, Jacob, with Arent Roggeveen. The Burning Fen. Pt. 2, London, 1687. (modern ed., trans. C. Koeman, Amsterdam, 1971).

 Royal African, The. The Royal African, or Memoirs of the Young Prince of Annamaboe. . .. London, n.d. (ca. 1749).
     a novel inspired by the London visit of William Ansah, son of Eno Baisie Kurentsie of Anomabu on the Gold Coast.

 Royal African Company. A Detection of the Proceedings and Practices. . .of the Royal African Company of England. . ., with Remarks on the Use and Importance of the British Forts and Settlements on the Coast of Guiney. . .. London, 1749.

 Ryder, A.F.C. "An Early Portuguese Trading Voyage to the Fourcados River." Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria. 1, 4 (1959), 512-535.

 Sancho, Ignatius. The Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, and African. 2 vols. London, 1782. (facs. ed. 1968).

 Saugnier, F. and Pierre Raymond de Brisson. Voyages to the Coast of Africa. London, 1792. (reprint ed., New York, 1969).

 Schotte, Johann Peter. A Treatise on the Synochus Atrabilosa, a Contagious Fever which Raged at Senegal in the Year 1779. London, 1782.

 Smeathman, Henry. Plan of a Settlement to be Made Near Sierra Leone on the Grain Coast of Africa. London, 1786.

 Smith, William. A New Voyage to Guinea. . .. London, 1744. (subseq. ed., 1745; facs. ed., 1967).

 Snelgrave, Capt. William. A New Account of Some Parts of Guinea and the Slave Trade, Containing. . .the History of the Late Conquest of the Kingdom of Whidaw by the King of Dahomè. London, 1734. (2nd ed. 1754; facs. ed., 1971).

 Stanfield, James Field. Observations on a Guinea Voyage in a Series of Letters Addressed to the Rev. Thomas Clarkson. London, 1788.

 Taylor, E.G.R., ed. A Briefe Summe of Geographie. Hakluyt Society, 2nd. ser., 69. London, 1932.

 __________. The Troublesome Voyage of Captain Edward Fenton. Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 103. London, 1957.

 Thompson, Rev. Thomas. An Account of Two Missionary Voyages. . . the One to New Jersey. . .the Other to the Coast of Guiney. London, 1758. (facs. ed., 1937).

 __________. The African Trade for Negro Slaves Shewn to Be Consistent with the Principles of Humanity and of Revealed Religion. Canterbury, n.d. (1772).

 __________. Memoirs of an English Missionary to the Coast of Guinea. London, 1788.

 Todd, Silas. An Account of the Life of, and Dealings of God with, Silas Todd, Late Preacher of the Gospel. . .Written by Himself. London, 1786.

 [Touchet, Samuel]. A letter to a Merchant of Bristol Concerning a Petition of S-- T-- Esq. to the King for an Exclusive Grant of the Trade of the River Senegal. . .by a Merchant of London. London, 1762.

 [Tweed, Mr.]. Considerations and remarks on the Present State of the Trade with Africa, with Some Account of the British Settlement. . .by a Gentleman who Resided Upwards of Fifteen Years in that Country. London, 1771.

 Uring, Capt. Nathaniel. A History of the Voyages and Travels of Captain Nathaniel Uring. London, 1726. (subseq. eds., 1727, 1749; modern ed. Capt. Alfred Dewar, London, 1928).

Uthman, Muhammad Fodiye [Usuman dan Fodio]. Bayan Wujub al-Hijra Ala'l-Ibad. Khartoum and Oxford, 1978.
     Arabic text with English trans.

 Verger, Pierre. Trade Relations Between the Gulf of Benin and Bahia. Evelyn Crawford, trans., Ibadan, 1976.

 Villault, Nicolas, Sieur de Bellefond. A Relation of the Coasts of Africa Called Guinee / . . .of Africk Called Guinee. London, 1670.

 Wadstrom, Carl Bernhard. An Essay on Colonization. . . Particularly Applied to the Western Coast of Africa. . .. 2 vols., London, 1794-5. (facs. ed. 1968).

 __________. Observations on the Slave Trade and a Description of Some Part of the Coast of Guinea during a Voyage Made in 1787 and 1788. . . with Dr. A. Sparman and Capt. Arrhenius. London, 1789.

 __________. Plan for a Free Community at Sierra Leona. London, 1789 and 1792.

 Watts, John. A True Relation of the Inhumane and Unparallel'd Actions and Barbarous Murders of Negroes or Moors, Committed on Three English-men in Old Calabar in Guinny. . . . London, 1672.

 Weaver, H. Daily Life in the Kingdom of the Kongo. . .. London, 1967.
      English translation of work by a French anthropologist criticised by Jan Vansina in Africa, 39, 1 (1969), 62-67.

Wilks, Ivor, Nehemia Levitzon, and Bruce M. Height, eds. Chronicles from Gonja. Fontes Historiae Africanae, Series Arabica, 9, Cambridge, 1986.

Winsnes, Selena Axelrod. Letters on West Africa and the Slave Trade. . .. Oxford, 1992.