Topical Bibliography

From the Institute Syllabus

ROOTS 1998

Background Reading

Bailyn, Bernard. "The Idea of Atlantic History," Itinerario, 20, 1 (1996), pp. 19-44.

 Conniff, Michael L., and Thomas J. Davis, eds. Africans in the Americas: A History of the Black Diaspora. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

 Curtin, Philip. The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex: Essays in Atlantic History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

 Du Bois, W.E.B. The Negro. Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thompson, 1975.

 __________. The Suppression of the African Slave Trade, 1638-1870. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.

 Jalloh, Alusine, and Stephen E. Maizlish, eds. The African Diaspora. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1996.

 Miller, Joseph C. "The Slave Trade," in Barbara A. Tennenbaum, ed.-in-chief, Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, . vol. 5, pp. 122-127.

 Thornton, John K. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1500-1680. (2nd ed.) New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

History and Culture in Africa

Curtin, Philip, Steven Feierman, Leonard Thompson, and Jan Vansina. African History London: Longmans, 1978. (2nd ed., 1995).

 Illiffe, John. Africans: The History of a Continent. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

 Isichei, Elizabeth. A History of African Societies (vol. 1, to 1800). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

 Martin, Phyllis, and Patrick O'Meara, eds., Africa. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1977.

 Middleton, John, ed. The Encyclopedia of Sub-Saharan Africa. 4 vols. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997.

 Oliver, Roland. The African Experience. New York: Harper Collins, 1991.

 Palmer, Colin. Passageways: An Interpretive History of Black America. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, 1998.

 Shillington, Kevin. History of Africa. New York: MacMillan, 1989. (2nd ed., 1995).

 Vogel, Joseph O., ed. Encyclopedia of Pre-Colonial Africa: Archaeology, History, Languages, Cultures, and Environment. Walnut Creek: Altamira, 1997.

West Africa in the Atlantic Era, 16th-18th Centuries

Guyer, Jane I., et al. "Wealth in People: Wealth in Things," Journal of African History, 36, 2 (1995).

Central Africa in the Atlantic Era, 16th-18th Centuries

Miller, Joseph. Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730-1830. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.

 __________. "The Paradoxes of Impoverishment in the Atlantic Zone," in David Birmingham and Phyllis Martin, eds. History of Central Africa. London: Longmans, 1983, vol. 1, pp. 118-59.

The "Slave Coast" of West Africa

Bay, Edna G. Wives of the Leopard. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998.

 Law, Robin. The Slave Coast of West Africa 1550-1750: The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on an African Society. London: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Historical Archaeology in Western Africa

Bruner, Edward M. "Tourism in Ghana: The Representation of Slavery and the Return of the Black Diaspora." American Anthropologist, 98, 2 (1996), pp. 290-304.

 De Corse, C. R. "Culture Contact, Continuity and Change on the Gold Coast, 1400-1990 A.D." African Archaeological Review, 10 (1992), pp. 163-96.

 __________. "Documents, Oral Histories, and the Material Record: Historical Archaeology in West Africa." World Archaeological Bulletin, 7 (1996), pp. 40-50.

 __________. "Historical Archaeology in Western Africa." in The Archaeology of Sub-Saharan Africa: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, 1997, pp. 545-49.

__________. "West African Archaeology and the Atlantic Slave Trade." Slavery and Abolition, 12, 2 (1991), pp. 92-96.

Interpretive Issues of the Slave Trade in Africa

Inikori, Joseph. "Slavery in Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade." in Jalloh and Maizlish, eds., African Diaspora, pp. 39-72.

 Manning, Patrick. "Primitive Art and Modern Times." Radical History Review, 33 (1985), pp. 165-81.

 __________. Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Issues of Interpretation

Curtin, Philip D. Economic Change in Precolonial Africa: Senegambia in the Era of the Slave Trade. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1975.

 Inikori, Joseph E. Forced Migration: The Impact of the Export Slave Trade on African Societies. London: Hutchinson, 1981.

 Isichei, Elizabeth. The Angry Imagination: A History and Ethnography. (MS in preparation).

 Shaw, Rosalind. The Dangers of Temne Divination: Ritual Memories of the Slave Trade in West Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

 Thornton, John K. "Precolonial African Industry and the Atlantic Trade, 1500-1800." African Economic History, pp. 1-19.

see also responses by Ralph Austen, pp. 21-24; Patrick Manning, pp. 25-30; J.S. Hogendorn and Henry Gemery, pp. 31-35; E. Ann McDougal, pp. 37-54.

The Atlantic Slave Trade--Overview

Curtin, Philip. The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.

 Feelings, Tom. The Middle Passage. New York: Dial Press, 1995.

 Mannix, Daniel P., and Malcolm Cowley. Black Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1518-1865. New York, Viking Press, 1962.

 Miller, Joseph. Way of Death. Chs. 8-11.

The Atlantic Slave Trade--The Disease Environment

Alden, Dauril, and Joseph C. Miller, "Unwanted Cargoes: The Origins and Dissemination of Smallpox via the Slave Trade from Africa to Brazil, c. 1560-1830." in Kenneth Kiple, ed., The African Exchange: Toward a Biological History of the Black People, pp. 35-109.

 Curtin, Philip. "Epidemiology and the Slave Trade." Political Science Quarterly, 83 2 (1968), pp. 190-216.

 Kiple, Kenneth F., ed. The African Exchange: Toward a Biological History of the Black People. Durham: Duke University Press, 1988.

 Kiple, Kenneth F. The Caribbean Slave: A Biological History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

 Kiple, Kenneth F., and Brian T. Higgins, "Mortality Caused by Dehydration during the Middle Passage." Social Science History, 13, 4 (1989), pp. 421-37. reprinted in Joseph Inikori and Stanley Engerman, eds., The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe, pp. 321-37.

 Miller, Joseph C. "Overcrowded and Undernourished: Techniques and Consequences of Tight-Packing in the Portuguese Southern Atlantic Slave Trade." condensed in Serge Daget, ed., De la Traite a L'Esclavage (Actes du Colloque International sur la Traite des Noirs, Nantes, 1985), Paris/Nantes: Société Française d'Histoire d'Outre-Mer and Centre de Recherche sur l'Histoire du Monde Atlantique, 1988, vol 2, pp. 395-424.

Life Below Decks

Moore, David. Site Report: Historical and Archaeological Investigations of the Shipwreck "Henrietta Marie." Key West, 1997.

 Thornton, John K. "African Background of the Slave Cargo of the Henrietta Maria." unpublished MS, 1993.

Demography and the Numbers Game

Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade.

 Eltis, David and David Richardson, eds. "Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity and Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade." Slavery and Abolition, 18, 1 (1977), special issue.

also published as Routes to Slavery: Direction, Ethnicity and Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade. London, Frank Cass, 1997.

Eltis, David, David Richardson, Stephen D. Behrendt, and Herbert S. Klein, eds. The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM Set and Guidebook. New York: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming, 1998.

 Inikori, Joseph. "Introduction." in Forced Migration.

 Inikori, Joseph. "Africa in World History: the Export Slave Trade from Africa and the Emergence of the Atlantic Economic Order." in B.A. Ogot, ed. General History of Africa, Vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Berkeley/Paris/London: University of California Press/UNESCO/Heinemann, 1992, pp. 74-112.

Plantation Archaeology in Barbados and at Monticello

Handler, Jerome S., and Frederick W. Lange (with the assistance of Robert V. Riordan). Plantation Slavery in Barbados: An Archaeological and Historical Investigation. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.

 Stanton, Lucia C. Slavery at Monticello. Charlottesville VA: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, 1996.

Voyage of the Slave Ship Diligent (1731-1732)

Caretta, Vincent, ed. Olaudah Equiano: The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.

 Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997.

Narratives, Biography, and Memory of the Middle Passage

Handler, Jerome S. "Life Histories of Enslaved Africans in Barbados." Slavery and Abolition. 19 (1988), pp. 129-41.

 Lovejoy, Paul E. "The African Diaspora: revisionist Interpretations of Ethnicity, Culture, and Religion under Slavery." Studies in the World History of Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation. 1-2, 1 (1996-97).
Lovejoy, Paul E. and Robin Law. "The Changing Dimensions of African History: Reappropriating the Diaspora." in Simon McGrath, Charles Jedrej, Kenneth King, and Jack Thompson, eds. Rethinking African History. Edinburgh: Centre of African Studies, 1997, pp. 181-200.

 __________, coords. "The Development of the African Diaspora: The Slave Trade of the Nigerian Hinterland." (in collaboration with the UNESCO "Slave Route Project.").

Theoretical Perspectives on African Culture in the Americas

Herskovits, Melville J. The Myth of the Negro Past. New York: Harper, 1941. new ed., with introduction by Sidney W. Mintz, Boston: Beacon Press, 1990.

 Holloway, Joseph E. "The Origins of African-American Culture." in idem., ed., Africanisms in American Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

 Mintz, Sidney and Richard Price. An Anthropological Approach to the Afro-American Past. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1976.

republished as The Birth of African-American Culture: An Anthropological Perspective. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.
Palmer, Colin. Passageways.

 Palmié, Stephan, ed. Slave Cultures and the Cultures of Slavery. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1995.

 Philip, John Edward. "The African Heritage of White America." in Joseph Holloway, ed. Africanisms in American Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

 Stuckey, Sterling. Slave Culture: Nationalist Theory and the Foundations of Back America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

 Thornton, John. Africa and Africans.

 Wright, Donald R. African Americans in the Colonial Era: From African Origins through the American Revolution. Arlington Heights, Ill: Harlan Davidson, 1990.

The Middle Passage--Its Meanings for American History

Gomez, Michael. Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

 Hall, Robert. "Black and White Christians in Florida, 1822-1861." in John Boles, ed., Masters and Slaves in the House of the Lord. pp. 81-98.

 __________. Review of Amistad. Radical Historians Newsletter (12/97).

 __________. Review of Charles Joyner, Down by the Riverside. Journal of Southern History (1985).

 __________. "The Religious Symbolism of the Iron Pot: The Plausibility of a Congo-Angola Origin." Western Journal of Black Studies (1989).

 __________. "Savoring Africa in the New World." in Herman J. Viola and Carolyn Margolis, eds. Seeds of Change. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991, pp. 160-69.

 __________. "Slave Resistance in Baltimore City and County, 1747-1790." Maryland Historical Magazine. 84, 4 (1989), pp. 305-18.

Discussion of the African Diaspora--Theory and Practice

Brock, Lisa, guest ed. "African [Diaspora] Studies." in special issue of Issue: A Journal of Opinion. 24, 2 (1996).

 Gilroy, Paul. Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. London: Verso, 1993.

 Harris, Joseph E. "The Dynamics of the Global African Diaspora." in Jalloh and Maizlish, eds. African Diaspora, pp. 7-21.

 __________. Global Dimensions of the African Diaspora. 2nd ed. Washington D.C.: Howard University Press, 1993.


Mills, Gary B. and Elizabeth Shown. "Roots and the New 'Faction': A Legitimate Tool for Clio?" Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 89, 1 (1981), 3-26.

 Wright, Donald R. "Uprooting Kunta Kinte: On the Perils of Relying on Encyclopedia Informants." History in Africa. 8 (1981), pp. 205-17.

Settling In--Virginia (late 17th-early 18th centuries)

Breen, Timothy H. and Stephen Innes. "Mine Owne Ground": Race and Freedom on Virginia's eastern Shore, 1640-1676. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

 Morgan, Philip D. Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Low Country. Williamsburg: Omohundro Institute for American History and Culture, 1998.

 Sluiter, Engel. "New Light on the '20 and Odd Negroes' Arriving in Virginia, August 1619." William and Mary Quarterly. 54, 3 (1997), pp. 396-98.

 Sobel, Mechal. The World They Made Together: Black and White Values in Eighteenth-Century Virginia. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

 Thornton, John K. "The African Experience of the '20 and Odd Negroes' Arriving in Virginia in 1619." William and Mary Quarterly. 55 (1998), forthcoming.

 Walsh, Lorena. From Calabar to Carter's Grove: The History of an African-American Community. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1997.

 Wood, Peter H. Strange Land, New Land: African-Americans, 1617-1776. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Settling In--The Carolina Low Country (late 17th-18th centuries)

Berlin, Ira. "From Creole to African: Atlantic Creoles and the Origins of African-American Society in Mainland North America." William and Mary Quarterly. 53, 2 (1996), pp. 251-88.

 __________. "Time, Space, and the Evolution of Afro-American Society on British Mainland North America." American Historical Review. 85, 1 (1980), pp. 44-78.

Reprinted in Finkleman, ed. Slavery and Historiography, pp. 2-36; also in Hoffer, ed. Africans Become Afro-Americans, pp. 396-430; also in Jordan and Skemp, eds. Race and Family in the Colonial South, pp. 131-46.
Handler, Jerome S. and JoAnn Jacoby. "Slave names and Naming in Barbados, 1650-1830." William and Mary Quarterly. 53, 4 (1996), pp. 685-728.

 Joyner, Charles. Down by the Riverside: A South Carolina Slave Community. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1984.

 Morgan, Philip D. "British Encounters with Africans and African-Americans, circa 1600 to 1780." in Bernard Bailyn and Philip D. Morgan, eds. Strangers in the Realm: Cultural Margins of the First British Empire. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1991, pp. 157-219.

 __________. "The Cultural Implications of the Atlantic Slave Trade: African Regional Origins, American Destinations and New World Developments." Slavery and Abolition. 18, 1 (1997), pp. 72-98.

 Thornton, John K. "African Dimensions of the Stono Rebellion." American Historical Review. 96, 5 (1991), pp. 1101-13.

 Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion. New York: Knopf, 1974.

 __________. "'I am the Subject of the King of Congo': African Political Ideology and the Haitian Revolution." Journal of World History. 4,2 (1993), pp. 181-214.

Afro-Centrism, American History and Culture, and African History

Asante, Molefi. African Culture. Trenton, NJ: Third World Press, 1990.

 __________. Afrocentricity. Trenton, NJ: Third World Press, 1989.

 Blyden, Edward. "Ethiopia Stretching Out Her Hands Unto God." and "Africa's Service to the World." in Christianity, Islam, and the Negro Race. Baltimore, 1994.

 Clegg, Claude Andrew, III. An Original Man: Elijah Muhammad. New York, 1997.

 Du Bois, W.E.B. "The White Masters of the World." in The World and Africa. New York, 1972.

 Garvey, Marcus. "The White Man's Burden." in Robert Hill, ed. Marcus Garvey: Life and Lessons. Los Angeles, 1987.

 Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks.