Sources on African Diaspora Ethnography and Ethnohistory

Roots: The African Background of American Culture through the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
NEH Summer Institute
Virginia Foundation for the Humanities
June 1998

Compiled by Michael Stone
Department of Anthropology
Hartwick College

Abrahams, Roger D.

1970 Rapping and Capping: Black Talk as Art. In Black America. John F. Szwed, ed. pp. 132-142. New York: Free Press.

1983 The Man-of-Words in the West Indies: Performance and the Emergence of Creole Culture. Baltimore.

1994 Singing the Master: The Emergence of African American Culture in the Plantation South. New York: Penguin.

Aching, Gerard

1994 On the Creation of Unsung National Heroes: Barnet's Esteban Montejo and Armas's Julian Del Casal. Latin American Literary Review 22(43): 31-50.

Aguirre Beltrán, Gonzalo

1958 Cuijla, esbozo etnográfico de un pueblo negro. México, DF: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

1989 [1946] La población negra de México: estudio etnohistórico, tercera edición. México, DF: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Alexander, Jack

1984 Love, Race, Slavery and Sexuality in Jamaican Images of the Family. In Kinship Ideology and Practice in Latin America. Raymond T. Smith, ed. pp. 147-180. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Allsop, Richard

1984 African Influence on Language in the Caribbean. In Africa in Latin America: Essays on History, Culture, and Socialization. Manuel Moreno Fraginals, ed. pp. 83-102. New York: Holmes and Meier.

Austin, Diane J.

1979 History and Symbols in Ideology: A Jamaican Example. Man 14: 297-314.

1983 Culture and Ideology in the English-speaking Caribbean: A View from Jamaica. American Ethnologist 10: 223-240.

Austin-Broos, Diane J.

1994 Race/Class: Jamaica's Discourse of Heritable Identity. Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 68: 213-233.

1995 Gay Nights and Kingston Town: Representations of Kingston, Jamaica. In Postmodern Cities. Sophie Watson and Katherine Gibson, eds. pp. 149-164. Oxford: Blackwell.

Barker, David

1988 Afro-Caribbean Agriculture: A Jamaican Maroon Community in Transition. Geographical Journal 154(2): 198-208.

Barnet, Miguel

1966 The Autobiography of a Runaway Slave. Trans. Jocasta Inness. London: Bodley Head.

1994 Biography of a Runaway Slave. Trans. W. Nick Hill. Willimantic, CT: Curbstone Press.

Bascom, William Russell

1992 African Folktales in the New World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Bastide, Roger

1971 African Civilizations in the New World.

Beckles, Hilary

1989 White Servitude and Black Slavery in Barbados, 1627-1715. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

1990 A History of Barbados: From Amerindian Settlement to Nation-State. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Beckles, Hilary, and Andrew Downes

1987 The Economics and the Transition to the Black Labor System in Barbados, 1630-1680. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18: 225-247.

Beckwith, Martha W.

1929 Black Roadways: A Study of Jamaican Folk Life. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Blackburn, Robin

1988 The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery 1776-1848. London: Verso.

1997 The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern 1492-1800. London: Verso.

Bolland, O. Nigel

1988 Colonialism and Resistance in Belize: Essays in Historical Sociology. Belize: Cubola Productions.

Bourgois, Philippe I.

1989 Ethnicity at Work: Divided Labor on a Central American Banana Plantation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Burnside, Madeleine

1997 Spirits of the Passage: The Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Seventeenth Century. Rosemarie Robotham, ed. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Burton, Richard D.E.

1997 Afro-Creole: Power, Opposition and Play in the Caribbean. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Bush, Barbara. Kingston

1990 Slave Women in Caribbean Society, 1650-1838. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Campbell, Edward D.C., Jr., with Kym S. Rice

1991 Before Freedom Came: African-American Life in the Antebellum South. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Cesaire, Aime

1972 Discourse on Colonialism. New York.

Chaliand, Gérard, and Jean-Pierre Rageau

1995 The Penguin Atlas of Diasporas. New York: Viking Penguin.

Chinea, Jorge L.

1996 Race, Colonial Exploitation and West Immigration in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico, 1800-1850. The Americas 52:4.

Chomsky, Aviva

1996 West Indian Workers and the United Fruit Company in Costa Rica, 1870-1940. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Comitas, Lambros

1973 Slaves, Free Men, Citizens; West Indian Perspectives. Garden City, NY.

1973 Work and Family Life: West Indian Perspectives. Garden City, NY.

Conniff, Mike, and T.J. Davis, eds.

1994 Africans in the Americas: A History of the Black Diaspora. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Conrad, Robert Edgar

1972 The Destruction of Brazilian Slavery. Berkeley: University of California Press.

1986 World of Sorrow: The African Slave Trade to Brazil. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

1994 Children of God's Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in Brazil. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Crahan, Margaret E., and Franklin W. Knight, eds.

1991 [1979] Africa and the Caribbean: The Legacies of a Link. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801825393

Craton, Michael

1982 Testing the Chains: Resistance to Slavery in the British West Indies. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Craton, Michael, and James Walvin

19?? A Jamaican Plantation: The History of Worthy Park 1620-1970.

Curtin, Philip D.

1955 Two Jamaicas. Cambridge, MA.

1968 Epidemiology and the Slave Trade. Political Science Quarterly 83: 190-216.

1990 Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex: Essays in Atlantic History.

Curtin, Philip D., Steven Feierman, Leonard Thompson, and Jan Vansina

1995 African History, second edition. London: Longman.

Davis, Ralph

1973 The Rise of the Atlantic Economies. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Dash, Julie

1992 Daughters of the Dust: The Making of an African American Woman's Film. New York.

Davis, Allison

1941 Deep South: A Social Anthropological Study of Caste and Class. Chicago.

1964 [1940] Children of Bondage; The Personality Development of Negro Youth in the Urban South. New York.

1983 Leadership, Love, and Aggression. San Diego.

Davis, Darién, ed.

1995 Slavery and Beyond: The African Impact on Latin America and the Caribbean. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.

Davis, David Brion

1965 The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

1966 The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Derby, Lauren

1994 Haitians, Magic and Money: Raza and Society in the Haitian-Dominican Borderlands, 1900 to 1937. Comparative Studies in Society and History 36(3): 488-526.

Domínguez, Jorge I., ed.

1994 Race and Ethnicity in Latin America. New York: Garland.

Douglass, Frederick

1995 Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. New York: Dover.

Drake, St. Clair

1987 Black Folk Here and There: An Essay in History and Anthropology. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, University of California.

Dressler, William W.

1992 Social Factors Mediating Social Class Differences in Blood Pressure in a Jamaican Community. Social Science and Medicine 35(10): 1233-1244.

Dunham, Katherine

1994 [1969] Island Possessed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [Haiti]

Eisenberg, Peter L.

1974 The Sugar Industry of Pernambuco, 1840-1910: Modernization without Change. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ellison, Ralph

1964 Shadow and Act. New York: Random House.

Eltis, David

1987 Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. New York: Oxford University Press. HT1162 .E48 1987

Engerman, Stanley L.

19xx Servants to Slaves to Servants: Contract Labor and European Expansion. In Colonialism and Migration. P.C. Emmer, ed. pp. 263-294.

Farmer, Paul E.

1992 Aids and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Fick, Carolyn E.

1990 The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Frucht, Richard, ed.

1971 Black Society in the New World. New York: Random House.

Galloway, J.H.

1989 The Sugar Cane Industry: An Historical Geography from Its Origins to 1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., ed.

19?? The Classic Slave Narratives. Mentor Books.

Geggus, David

1982 Slavery, War, and Revolution: The British Occupation of Saint Domingue, 1793-1798. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Gibson, Kean

1992 Tense and Aspect in Guyanese Creole with Reference to Jamaican and Carriacouan. International Journal of American Linguistics 58(1): 49-95.

Glissant, Edouard

1989 Caribbean Discourse: Selected Essays. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Gmelch, George

1992 Double Passage: The Lives of Caribbean Migrants Abroad and Back Home. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Graham, Richard, ed.

1994 The Idea of Race in Latin America. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Grasmuck, Sherri.

1991 Between Two Islands: Dominican International Migration. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo

1971 Social Control in Slave Plantation Societies: A Comparison of Saint Domingue and Cuba. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. HT1081 .H35 1971

1992 Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Hall, Stuart

1995 Negotiating Caribbean Identities. New Left Review 209: 3-14.

Harlow, Vincent T.

1969 [1926] A History of Barbados, 1625-1685. New York: Negro Universities Press.

Helg, Aline

19?? Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912.

Hennessy, Alistair, ed.

1992 Intellectuals in the Twentieth-century Caribbean. London: Macmillan.

Herskovits, Melville J.

1990 The Myth of the Negro Past. Boston: Beacon Press.

Higman, B. W

1984 Slave Populations of the British Caribbean, 1807-1834. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hirsch, Arnold R., and Joseph Logsdon, eds.

1992 Creole New Orleans: Race and Americanization. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Hobbs, Doreen

1986 Jewels of the Caribbean: The History of the Salvation Army in the Caribbean Territory. London.

Holloway, Joseph, ed.

1990 Africanism in American Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Horowitz, Michael, ed.

1971 Peoples and Cultures of the Caribbean: An Anthropological Reader. Garden City, NY.

Hyatt, Vera Lawrence, and Rex Nettleford, eds.

1995 Race, Discourse, and the Origin of the Americas. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Irwin, Graham W.

1977 Africans Abroad: A Documentary History of the Black Diaspora in Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean during the Age of Slavery. New York: Columbia University Press.

James, C.L.R. (Cyril Lionel Robert)

1963 [1938] The Black Jacobins; Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution, second edition. New York.

1977 The Future in the Present: Selected Writings. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

1992 The C.L.R. James Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Johnston, Harry Hamilton, Sir

1910 The Negro in the New World… with one illustration in colour by the author and 390 black and white illustrations by the author and others; maps by Mr. J.W. Addison. London: Methuen and Co., Ltd.

Jordan, Winthrop

1969 [1962] American Chiaroscuro: The Status and Definition of Mulattoes in the British Colonies. In Slavery in the New World: A Reader in Comparative History. Laura Foner and Eugene D. Genovese, eds. pp. 189-201. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

1977 White Over Black: American Attitudes toward the Negro, 1550-1812. New York: Norton.

Kinsbruner, Jay

1996 Not of Pure Blood: The Free People of Color and Racial Prejudice in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico. Durham: Duke University Press.

Kiple, Kenneth F.

1984 The Caribbean Slave: A Biological History. Cambridge.

Knight, Franklin W.

1990 The Caribbean: The Genesis of a Fragmented Nationalism, second edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Law, Robin

1977 The Oyo Empire, c.1600-c.1836: A West African Imperialism in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Oxford: Clarendon Press. DT513 .L38 1977

1991 The Slave Coast of West Africa, 1550-1750: The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on an African Society. Oxford.

Levine, Lawrence W.

1977 Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, Gordon K.

1968 The Growth of the Modern West Indies. New York.

1972 The Virgin Islands; a Caribbean Lilliput. Evanston, IL

1978 Slavery, Imperialism, and Freedom: Studies in English Radical Thought. New York

1983 Main Currents in Caribbean Thought: The Historical Evolution of Caribbean Society in Its Ideological Aspects, 1492-1900. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

1985 The Contemporary Caribbean: A General Overview. Washington, DC.

1987 Grenada: the Jewel Despoiled. Baltimore.

Litwack, Leon F.

1980 Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. New York: Vintage.

Litwack, Leon F., and August Meier, eds.

1988 Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.

Lockhart, James, and Stuart B. Schwartz

1983 Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lovejoy, Paul E.

1983 Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lowenthal, David

1972 West Indian Societies. New York: Oxford.

1973 The Aftermath of Sovereignty: West Indian Perspectives. Garden City, NY.

1973 Consequences of Class and Color: West Indian Perspectives. Garden City, NY.

Luis, William

1990 Literary Bondage: Slavery in Cuban Narrative. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Macaulay, Zachary

1823 Negro Slavery, or, a View of Some of the More Prominent Features of That State of Society: As It Exists in the United States of America and in the Colonies of the West Indies, Especially in Jamaica. London: Hatchard and Son.

Mangru, Basdeo

1993 Indenture and Abolition: Sacrifice and Survival on the Guyanese Sugar Plantations. Toronto: TSAR.

Manning, Patrick

1982 Slavery, Colonialism, and Economic Growth in Dahomey, 1640-1960. Cambridge.

1991 Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Marc, Stephen, and Alan Cohen

1992 The Black Trans-Atlantic Experience: Street Life and Culture in England, Ghana, Jamaica, and the United States. Chicago: Department of Photography, Columbia College; distributed by the University of Illinois Press.

Martin, Tony

1983 The Pan African Connection.

McKay, Claude

19?? Banana Bottom.

Meeks, Brian

1993 Caribbean Revolutions and Revolutionary Theory: An Assessment of Cuba, Nicaragua and Grenada. London.

Meillassoux, Claude

1981 The Role of Slavery in the Economic and Social History of Sahelo-Sudanic Africa. In Forced Migration. Joseph E. Inikori, ed. pp. 77-99. London.

Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds.

1977 Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Miller, Joseph Calder

1988 Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730-1830. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Mintz, Sidney W.

1984 Africa of Latin America. In Africa in Latin America: Essays on History, Culture, and Socialization. Manuel Moreno Fraginals, ed. pp. 286-305. New York: Holmes and Meier.

1985 Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York: Penguin.

1989 [1974] Caribbean Transformations. New York: Columbia University Press.

1996 Enduring Substances, Trying Theories: The Caribbean Region as Oikoumenê. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 2(2): 289-311.

1996 Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom: Excursions into Eating, Culture, and the Past. Boston: Beacon Press.

Mintz, Sidney W., and Richard Price

1992 [1976] The Birth of African-American Culture: An Anthropological Perspective. New York: Beacon.

Mintz, Sidney, and Sally Price, eds.

1985 Caribbean Contours. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Martinez Montiel, Luz Maria, ed.

1995 Presencia africana en México. México: Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, Colección "Claves de América Latina, Nuestra Tercera Raiz."

1995 Presencia africana en Centroamérica (Belice, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panama). México: Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, Colección "Claves de América Latina, Nuestra Tercera Raiz."

1995 Presencia africana en Sudamérica (Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay y Argentina). México: Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, Colección "Claves de América Latina, Nuestra Tercera Raiz."

Montgomery, Michael, ed.

1994 The Crucible of Carolina: Essays in the Development of Gullah Language and Culture. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Moore, Brian L.

1987 Race, Power, and Social Segmentation in Colonial Society: Guyana after Slavery, 1838-1891. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.

Moreno Fraginals, Manuel

1976 The Sugarmill: The Socioeconomic Complex of Sugar in Cuba. New York.

Moreno Fraginals, Manuel, ed.

1984 Africa in Latin America: Essays on History, Culture, and Socialization. New York: Holmes and Meier.

Moreno Fraginals, Manuel, Frank Moya Pons, and Stanley L. Engerman, eds.

1985 Between Slavery and Free Labor: The Spanish-speaking Caribbean in the Nineteenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801832241

Mörner, Magnus, ed.

1971 Race and Class in Latin America. New York: Columbia University Press.

Morrissey, Marietta

1989 Slave Women in the New World: Gender Stratification in the Caribbean. Lawrence, KS.

Nash, Gary

1992 Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early North America, Third Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.

Nettleford, Rex M.

1993 Inward Stretch, Outward Reach: A Voice from the Caribbean. London.

Okihiro, Gary Y.

1986 In Resistance: Studies in African, Caribbean, and Afro-American History. Amherst: University of Massachusetts. ISBN 0870235206

Oliver, Paul

1970 Savannah Syncopators: African Retentions in the Blues. New York: Stein and Day.

Ortiz, Fernando

1981 Los bailes y el teatro de los negros en el folklore de Cuba, segunda edición. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba: Editorial Letras Cubanas; New York: Ediciones Vitral.

Oshinsky, David M.

1996 Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice. New York: Free Press.

Pacquette, Robert

19?? Sugar is Made with Blood: The Conspiracy of La Escalera and the Conflict Between Empires over Slavery in Cuba.

Pactor, Howard S., compiler

1990 Colonial British Caribbean Newspapers: A Bibliography and Directory. New York: Greenwood Press.

Palmer, Colin A.

1976 Slaves of the White God: Blacks in Mexico, 1570-1650. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

1995 First Passage: Blacks in the Americas, 1502-1617. New York.

1998 Passageways: An Interpretive History of Black America, Volume I: 1619-1863. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace.

Palmié, Stephen, ed.

1995 Slave Cultures and the Cultures of Slavery. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Petras, Elizabeth McLean

1988 Jamaican Labor Migration: White Capital and Black Labor, 1850-1930. Boulder: Westview Press.

Phillips, William D., Jr.

1985 Slavery from Roman Times to the Early Transatlantic Trade. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Price, Richard

1976 The Guiana Maroons. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

1983 First-Time: The Historical Vision of an Afro-American People. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

19?? Alabi's World.

Price, Richard, ed.

1979 Maroon Societies: Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Price-Mars, Jean

1983 [1928] So Spoke the Uncle. Washington, DC: Three Continents Press.

Purcell, Trevor

1993 Banana Fallout: Class, Color, and Culture among West Indians in Costa Rica. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, University of California at Los Angeles.

Richardson, Bonham C.

1992 The Caribbean in the Wider World, 1492-1992. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Richardson, David

1985 Abolition and Its Aftermath: The Historical Context, 1790-1916. London: F. Cass.

1987 The Slave Trade, Sugar, and British Economic Growth, 1748-1776. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 17:739-769.

1989 Slave Exports from West and West-Central Africa, 1700-1810: New Estimates of Volume and Distribution. Journal of American History 30:1-22.

Rodney, Walter

1981 History of the Guyanese Working People. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

1982 How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Washington, DC.

19?? Groundings with My Brothers.

Roorda, Eric

1996 Genocide Next Door: The Good Neighbor Policy, the Trujillo Regime and the Haitian Massacre of 1937. Diplomatic History 20(3): 301-319.

Rout, Leslie

1976 The African Experience in Spanish America, 1502 to the Present Day. Cambridge University Press.

Russell, Horace O.

1993 The Reactions of the Baptist Missionary Society and the Jamaican Baptist Union to the Morant Bay Rebellion of 1865. Journal of Church and State 35(3): 593-603.

Russell-Wood, A.J.R.

1982 The Black Man in Slavery and Freedom in Colonial Brazil. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Saunders, Kay, ed.

1984 Indentured Labour in the British Empire, 1834-1920. London: Croom Helm.

Schuler, Monica

1980 "Alas, Alas, Kongo": A Social History of Indentured African Immigration into Jamaica, 1841-1865. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Scott, Rebecca J.

1985 Slave Emancipation in Cuba: The Transition to Free Labor, 1860-1899. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Segal, Ronald

1995 The Black Diaspora. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Shanklin, Eugenia

1994 Anthropology and Race. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Smith, Raymond T.

1990 Kinship and Class in the West Indies: A Genealogical Study of Jamaica and Guyana. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Solow, Barbara

1987 Capitalism and Slavery in the Exceedingly Long Run. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 17: 711-737.

Stinchcombe, Arthur L.

1994 Freedom and Oppression in the Eighteenth-century Caribbean. American Sociological Review 59(6): 911-929.

1995 Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment: The Political Economy of the Caribbean World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Stubbs, Jean, and Pedro Perez Sarduy, eds.

1993 AfroCuba: An Anthology of Cuban Writing on Race, Politics and Culture. Ocean Press.

Szwed, John F., ed.

1970 Black America. New York: Basic Books.

Thornton, John

1998 Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680, second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tibbles, Anthony, ed.

1995 Transatlantic Slavery: Against Human Dignity. London: National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside.

Troullot, Michel-Rolph

1989 Race, Class and Political Symbols: Rastafari and Reggae in Jamaican Politics. Latin American Research Review 24(2): 246-252.

Tucker, Barbara M.

1994 Agricultural Workers in World War II: The Reserve Army of Children, Black Americans, and Jamaicans. Agricultural History 68(1): 54-73.

Turner, Patricia A.

1993 I Heard It Through the Grapevine: Rumor in African-American Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Van Sertima, Ivan

1976 They Came before Columbus.

Wagley, Charles

1994 On the Concept of Social Race in the Americas. Race and Ethnicity in Latin America, Volume 7. Jorge I. Dominguez, ed. pp. 13-27. New York: Garland.

Walvin, James

1983 Slavery and the Slave Trade: A Shrot Illustrated History. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.

Watts, David

1987 The West Indies: Patterns of Development, Culture and Environmental Change since 1492. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

West, Robert Cooper, and John P. Augelli

1989 Middle America: Its Lands and Peoples, third edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Westerman, George W.

1961 Historical Notes of the West Indians of the Isthmus of Panama. Phylon 22(4):340-350.

Whitten, Norman E., and John F. Szwed, eds.

1970 Afro-American Anthropology: Contemporary Perspectives. New York: Free Press.

Wilentz, Amy

1990 The Rainy Season: Haiti since Duvalier. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Williams, Brackette F.

1991 Stains on My Name, War in My Veins: Guyana and the Politics of Cultural Struggle. Durham: Duke University Press.

Williams, Eric Eustace

1966 [1944] Capitalism and Slavery. New York: Capricorn Books.

1970 From Columbus to Castro: The History of the Caribbean, 1492-1969. London.

Wilson, Peter J.

1973 Crab Antics: The Social Anthropology of English-speaking Negro Societies of the Caribbean. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Work, Monroe Nathan

1928 A Bibliography of the Negro in Africa and America. New York: H.W. Wilson Co.